In the universe the earth is the only planet that sustains life.  Soil, water, air and sunlight are the valuable natural resource of the earth. Natural resource management is an unique process for sustenance of living beings. During the last 200 years in the world and about 60 years  in India living beings has been blessed by science and technology development and increased production of food , fiber, and fuel for its ever growing human population through industrial and agricultural revolution but its ecology which consists lithosphere, hydrosphere, biosphere and atmosphere have been jeopardized due to environmental pollution and accumulation of green house gases. Lack of organic recycling and indiscriminate use of synthetic chemical fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides and weedicides and accumulation of nitrate and heavy metals released from synthetic agrochemicals pollute soil , water, and air environment. Nitrate in soil, ground water and food residues causes cancer through carcinogenic chemicals like nitrosamines.

Crop in general utilize 30 to 50 percent of synthetic nitrogen, rest 50 to 70 percent of nitrogen is lost in leaching to ground water and identification to atmosphere. According to World Health Organization , nitrate level in drinking water above 50 milligram per litre is harmful for human and animal health. Residues of heavy metals like arsenic, cadmium.lead.mercury, nickel reported to lungs cancer and damage kidney, heart, brain, nerve in animals and human beings.

In nature soil clay-humus complex and soil solution are the chief components of the soil environment. In a tropical country like India loss of carbon – dioxide from earth atmosphere causes rapid loss of organic matter from soil. Use of synthetic nitrogenous fertilizers causes soil acidity which destroys soil humus, the store house of plant nutrients and as a consequence soil micro flora and fauna are destroyed.
Under reduced soil condition which prevails in most rice fields loss of nitrogen depletes ozone layer in the stratosphere on earth’s atmosphere. The ozone layer filter the ultra violate ray of the sun. This is responsible for causing cancer to the living beings.
According to the famous soil scientist Dr.N.R. Dhar organic matter with the help of heat and sunlight fixes atmospheric nitrogen in the soil, under tropical condition. The process known as thermal and photo-fixation of nitrogen in soil.  In well aerated soil, certain methane trophic bacteria produce the enzyme methane monooxygenase which allow them to oxidize methane to methanol, a substance that acts as an energy source. This reaction reduces the concentration of methane, a global green house gas.  Unfortunately, long term use of inorganic fertilizer especially ammonical nitrogenous fertilizer in crop land, pasture and forest reduces the capacity of the soil to oxidize methane. Long term experiments in Germany and England      indicate that supplying nitrogen in organic form (as manure) actually enhances the capacity of soil for methane oxidation. So, soil management has a major role to play in controlling the level of atmospheric green house gases.

Lack of organic matter management has destroyed soil fertility and productivity. In order to attain sustainable development of living beings on the earth , soil health restoration by diagnosis of soil and plant health and use of soil amendment in very much essential for higher production of food, fibre, and fuel to feed and nourish the ever increasing population of our country . An ideal lithosphere in terms of solum or soil consists of 45 percent mineral matter, 25 percent water, 25 percent air, and 5 percent organic matter or humus which is the store house of plant nutrients for micro-flora and micro- fauna. The microorganisms convert complex food materials in soil to simple food materials in ionic form for crop plant nutrition. Intensive high yielding cropping system also has exhausted crop plant nutrients from organic matter reserve of soil. Soil is depleted of crop nutrients especially the micronutrients constituent of enzyme in crop plant metabolic processes. As a consequence yield per unit area is declining year after year.

Under these circumstances, organic recycling by use of organic manure and vermin-compost for the restoration of soil health is urgently needed for  production of better quality of food, fibre and fuel through organic farming management.  Introduction of legume crop in intensive cropping system can fix atmospheric nitrogen in organic form in soil. Organic food is less perishable, easy to digest, and rich in poly- phenol.  Anti- oxidant property of organic food delays ageing in living being.

In green house gases which include carbon-dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, chlorofluorocarbon, and sulfur hexa-fluoride are responsible for the global warming . According to a study, modern agriculture is responsible for the emission of 25 percent of the carbon dioxide, 60 percent of methane, and 80 percent of nitrous oxide. Out of these green house gases, carbon dioxide is the principle agent and it believed that during the last 150 years, its level has increased by about 25 percent leading to the increase of 0.5 degree centigrade temperature in the Northern hemisphere and global warming, in general in the south hemisphere (Neftal et al, 1985) .It is postulated that in the coming 100 years, carbon dioxide level should be maintained within 0.050 percent. Present available models suggest that with the doubling of carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere, global temperature may increase by about 1.5 to 5 degree centigrade. This would lead to the rise of sea levels, erratic rainfall, shifting of vegetation zone and the effect of all these on crop yield will be very adverse (Bolin et al. , 1986). In India the forest area is about 17 to 20 percent of the total land area; ideally it should be 30 percent. `In increasing the land area under vegetation; Agro forestry should be practiced, especially in wasteland. Agro forestry will help to reduce the carbon dioxide level in the atmosphere which ultimately will help to control the global warming. This will also supply raw material for the bio-fuel production. Minimum tillage of soil in agriculture and use of bio-fuel in industry and transport system may further reduce production of green house gases and global warming.

Ground water is depleting throughout the world due to its indiscriminate use in irrigation. As a result, salinity and arsenic contamination problems are alarmingly increasing in soil and water. This problem can be mitigated to a large extent through water harvesting from micro- catchments and growing crops of low water requirement. The harvested water may be used to provide life saving irrigation to crops and to recharge the ground water. Out of the total rainfall in India only 20 percent is used for agriculture. A large fraction of the irrigation water is lost in deep percolation and seepage.  Therefore, it is very much essential to adopt method to achieve higher water use efficiency; especially, in dry land and low rainfall areas .
In India about 85 million hectares of dry land area where the average annual rainfall is below 1000 mm. In Western India, varies in the range of 100 to 500 mm. and in Eastern India the average rainfall is 1000 mm. In the country as a whole, percent water use efficiency is about 40 percent. The water use efficiency may be increased to 60 percent by adopting the methods of farming and irrigation. Adoption of precision farming technology such as application of drip irrigation in 27 million hectares of cultivated land, water use efficiency may be increased to the desired level. This will ultimately increase of food production.

In dry land areas organic and plastic mulching may be adopted for the conservation of water, weed control, supply of organic matter and plant nutrients to the crop.  Crop needs suitable temperature, light, humidity, moisture and nutrient for increased high quality yield. In this respect low cost green house technology which may increase crop yield 2 to 5 times may also be adopted in precision farming system.

In India the present food production is about 250 million tons. Is barely sufficient to feed its population about 1.27 billion. By the year 2050, population is estimated to increase to 1.60 billon requiring a food production of about 415 million tons. Therefore, the present rate of increase of 1 percent food production has to be enhanced to 4 percent by adopting the aforesaid technologies and management practices.

In India  about 75 percent of the total population depend upon agriculture. The traditional subsistence agriculture should be motivated with entrepreneurship development in farming system may improve economic and livelihood development of the farmers. The cost benefit ratio of agricultural produce by farmers should be improved by suitable subsidy for agricultural inputs to framers and support price of farm produce by the government. Perfect agricultural marketing model should be developed by the proper understanding of the state and central government to stabilize agricultural production market price. Introduction of agricultural base small and cottage industries in rural agriculture may give value added like food processing of farm produce. Agri-clinics and agri- business scheme should be implemented in rural area for better employment for rural people.